Kubernetes in detail


Kubernetes, often abbreviated as “K8s,” is a container orchestration platform that automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. It was originally developed by Google and is now maintained by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF). Which is part of the Linux Foundation.

Kubernetes history

Kubernetes has an interesting history that traces back to Google’s internal container orchestration system called Borg. Here’s a brief overview:

  • In the early 2000s, Google started using containers to package and deploy applications. Which allowed for efficient resource utilization and simplified application management.
  • Over time, Google developed Borg, their in-house container orchestration system. To manage the deployment and scaling of containerized applications across their massive data centers.
  • In 2014, Google the Borg-based container orchestration system as Kubernetes. Under the leadership of Brendan Burns, Joe Beda, and Craig McLuckie. K8s, often abbreviated as “K8s,” was donated to the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF). Which is part of the Linux Foundation, to ensure its neutrality and community-driven governance.

Goals and reasons:

  1. Automation: Kubernetes aimed to automate the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. To reduce the operational overhead of managing complex container deployments manually. It provides declarative configuration and powerful APIs for managing containers, Pods, and other resources. Allowing for efficient and automated management of containerized workloads.
  2. Scalability: Kubernetes was designed to handle large-scale deployments across clusters of machines. Making it suitable for applications with varying workloads and resource requirements. It provides mechanisms for scaling applications horizontally by adding or removing replicas of Pods. Which allows for efficient resource utilization and elastic scaling.
  3. Portability: K8s aimed to provide a portable platform for running containerized applications across different environments. Including public and private clouds, on-premises data centers, and edge computing environments. Its declarative approach to application deployment and management allows for consistent and reproducible deployments across different environments. Making it easy to move applications between different infrastructures.
  4. Flexibility: Kubernetes – designed to be extensible and modular. Allowing users to customize and extend its functionality to meet specific requirements. It provides a rich ecosystem of extensions, including custom resources, operators, and plugins. Which allows for flexibility and adaptability to different use cases and workflows.
  5. Community-driven: K8s – donated to the CNCF to foster a community-driven approach to its development and governance. This has led to a large and vibrant ecosystem of contributors, users, and vendors who collaborate to continuously improve and enhance Kubernetes. Making it one of the most popular and widely adopted container orchestration platforms.

Since its emergence, Kubernetes has gained widespread adoption in the industry and has become the de facto standard for container orchestration. Providing a powerful and flexible platform for deploying and managing containerized applications in production environments.


What are Containers?

Containers are a form of virtualization technology that allows applications to be packaged into self-sufficient units that contain all the dependencies needed to run the application. Including the code, runtime, libraries, and configuration files. Containers are lightweight and portable. As they isolate the application and its dependencies from the underlying host system, making them highly portable across different environments.

Containerization technologies

Kubernetes leverages containerization technologies, such as Docker, to package and distribute applications as containers. Docker is a popular platform that provides tools for building, distributing, and running containers. With Docker, developers can create container images that encapsulate an application and its dependencies into a single, portable unit. These container images can be easily distributed and deployed across different environments. Such as development, testing, and production, without worrying about differences in underlying host systems.


Kubernetes uses container images to deploy and manage applications as containers. It provides abstractions called Pods. Which are the smallest and simplest units in the K8s object model, to encapsulate one or more containers and their shared resources. Such as networking and storage. Containers within a Pod share the same network namespace and can communicate with each other using local hostnames and ports.

Managing containers features

Kubernetes provides powerful features for managing containers, such as automatic scaling, rolling updates, and self-healing. It allows users to define the desired state of their applications using declarative configuration files. Which specify the desired characteristics of the containers, such as the number of replicas, resource requirements, and container images. K8s then takes care of scheduling containers to run on available nodes in the cluster and monitors their health. And automatically handles scaling, updates, and failures, ensuring the reliable and efficient operation of containerized applications.

Kubernetes Scalability

Scalability is one of the key features of Kubernetes that makes it popular for deploying and managing containerized applications. K8s is designed to handle large-scale deployments across clusters of machines. Making it suitable for applications with varying workloads and resource requirements.

Here are some points to highlight regarding Kubernetes scalability:

  1. Horizontal scaling: Kubernetes allows for horizontal scaling. Which means adding or removing replicas of containers or Pods to meet the demand of the application. This allows applications to scale up or down dynamically based on the workload. Ensuring that the application can handle increased traffic or demand without performance degradation.
  2. Load balancing: K8s automatically distributes incoming network traffic across multiple Pods or containers that are part of a service or deployment. This ensures that the workload is evenly distributed, preventing any single container or Pod from becoming a performance bottleneck.
  3. Cluster scaling: K8s enables scaling of the entire cluster by adding or removing worker nodes. This allows for increasing the capacity of the cluster to accommodate more applications. And workloads or reducing the capacity to optimize resource utilization based on demand.
  4. Auto-scaling: K8s provides built-in support for auto-scaling. Where it can automatically adjust the number of replicas of Pods based on resource utilization metrics, such as CPU or memory usage. This allows for dynamic scaling of the application based on actual usage, ensuring optimal resource allocation and performance.
  5. Federation: K8s Federation is a feature that allows managing multiple Kubernetes clusters as a single, unified cluster. This enables scaling and managing applications across multiple clusters. Providing global scalability for large-scale deployments across different geographic regions or data centers.
  6. Extensibility: Kubernetes is highly extensible, allowing users to add custom resources, operators, and plugins to meet specific scalability requirements. This flexibility allows users to extend K8s functionality to cater to their unique use cases and workloads.

Kubernetes scalability makes it suitable for applications of all sizes, from small-scale deployments to large-scale, high-traffic applications, ensuring that the applications can handle varying workloads and resource demands efficiently and reliably.


Deployments are a key resource in Kubernetes that are used to manage the rollout and scaling of applications. They provide a declarative way to define and manage the desired state of an application. Making it easier to manage the lifecycle of applications in a K8s cluster.

Here are some points to highlight regarding Deployments in Kubernetes:

  1. Rolling updates: Deployments allow for rolling updates of applications. Which means that changes can be applied to the application gradually. One replica or Pod at a time, instead of all at once. This helps to ensure that the application remains available and operational during the update process. Without downtime or disruption to end-users.
  2. Replicas: Deployments allow users to define the desired number of replicas or instances of an application to run in the cluster. Kubernetes automatically monitors the actual state of the application and ensures. That the desired number of replicas is maintained, scaling up or down as needed based on the declared configuration.
  3. Container images: Deployments allow users to specify the container image or images to be used for the application. This allows for easy versioning and updating of container images, making it simple to roll out changes to applications or switch to different versions of container images.
  4. Configuration settings: Deployments allow users to define configuration settings for the application, such as environment variables, command-line arguments, and resource limits. This provides flexibility in configuring and managing applications in a declarative manner, allowing for easy customization of application behavior.
  5. Rollback and undo: Deployments provide the ability to rollback or undo updates to an application in case of issues or errors. If an update causes problems, users can roll back to a previous version of the application with a single command, ensuring that the application can be quickly reverted to a known working state.
  6. History and tracking: Deployments keep a history of all updates made to an application, including the versions of container images, configuration changes, and scaling actions. This allows for easy tracking and auditing of changes made to applications, providing visibility into the lifecycle of applications in the cluster.


Services – a fundamental concept in Kubernetes that used to expose applications running in a cluster to the network. They provide a stable IP address and DNS name that can be used to access the application, even if the underlying Pods or containers are rescheduled to different nodes in the cluster.

Here are some points to highlight regarding Services in K8s:

  1. Exposing applications: Services – used to expose applications running inside a Kubernetes cluster to the network, making them accessible from outside the cluster or from other services within the cluster. Services act as a stable entry point to access applications, even if the underlying Pods or containers are moved to different nodes in the cluster due to rescheduling or scaling.
  2. Load balancing: Services provide load balancing capabilities, distributing incoming network traffic across multiple Pods or containers that are part of the service. This ensures that the workload evenly distributed and prevents any single Pod or container from becoming a performance bottleneck. Load balancing helps to improve the availability and reliability of applications running in the cluster.
  3. DNS-based service discovery: Services – associated with a DNS name. That can be used to discover and access the service within the cluster. This allows applications to dynamically discover and communicate with services by using their DNS names. Making it easier to build complex distributed applications that rely on service-oriented architecture (SOA) or microservices patterns.
  4. Service types: Kubernetes supports several types of services, including ClusterIP, NodePort, LoadBalancer, and ExternalName, providing flexibility in exposing applications based on the specific networking requirements. ClusterIP provides a virtual IP address that is accessible only within the cluster, NodePort exposes the service on a specific port on each node in the cluster, LoadBalancer exposes the service using a cloud provider’s load balancer, and ExternalName provides a DNS name that maps to an external service outside the cluster.
  5. Service discovery and routing: Services in Kubernetes can be used in conjunction with other networking features like Ingress. Which provides a way to route external traffic to services based on rules defined in the cluster. This allows for more advanced traffic routing, load balancing, and security configurations for applications running in the cluster.
  6. Scaling and high availability: Services – designed to work seamlessly with scaling and high availability features of Kubernetes. As the number of Pods or containers associated with a service scales up or down. Services automatically update their configuration to reflect the changes, ensuring that traffic properly distributed and applications remain accessible.


Kubernetes Ingress is a powerful networking resource that provides external access to services running within a K8s cluster. Acting as a reverse proxy, Ingress acts as a gateway that sits between the external network and the services running in the cluster, enabling traffic routing and load balancing based on defined rules.

Key features:

One of the key features of Ingress is its ability to route incoming traffic to different services based on rules defined in the Ingress resource. These rules can be based on various criteria, such as URL paths or hostnames, allowing you to define fine-grained routing configurations. For example, you can route traffic to different services based on different URL paths, or route traffic to different services based on different hostnames, enabling complex traffic routing scenarios.

Ingress also supports load balancing, distributing incoming traffic across multiple backend services or Pods based on defined algorithms, such as round-robin or session affinity. This helps in distributing traffic evenly across multiple services or Pods, ensuring efficient utilization of resources and high availability of applications.

Moreover, Ingress provides SSL/TLS termination, allowing you to terminate SSL/TLS connections at the edge of the cluster. This means that you can encrypt traffic from the client to the Ingress controller, and then optionally decrypt it before routing it to backend services or Pods. This enables secure communication between clients and services running in the cluster, ensuring data confidentiality and integrity.

Ingress controllers, which are third-party components that implement the Ingress specification. Can be deployed in a Kubernetes cluster to manage the routing and load balancing of incoming traffic. There are several popular Ingress controllers available, such as NGINX Ingress Controller, Traefik, and HAProxy. Which provide advanced features and configuration options for routing and load balancing.

Ingress can also customized using annotations or custom resource definitions (CRDs) to define custom routing rules, load balancing algorithms, and other configurations. This gives you flexibility in defining how traffic routed and processed by the Ingress controller, allowing for fine-grained control over the behavior of your ingress traffic.


Additionally, Ingress integrates with other Kubernetes features, such as Services and Secrets, allowing you to define routing rules and SSL/TLS configurations based on Services and manage SSL certificates using Kubernetes Secrets. This makes it easy to manage networking configurations and SSL certificates in a declarative and consistent manner as part of your Kubernetes deployments.


Scaling is a crucial feature of K8s that allows applications to meet changing workload demands effectively. Kubernetes provides built-in mechanisms for both horizontal and vertical scaling of applications, enabling seamless scalability of containerized applications.

Horizontal scaling

Horizontal scaling – achieved by adding or removing replicas of Pods. Which are the smallest and most basic units in a Kubernetes cluster. Pods are created from container images and can be scaled up or down based on demand. This allows applications to handle increased traffic or workload by adding more replicas of Pods to distribute the load evenly, and scale down when the demand decreases to optimize resource utilization. Horizontal scaling in Kubernetes – achieved through the use of controllers. Such as ReplicaSets or Deployments, which manage the lifecycle and scaling of Pods.

Vertical scaling

Vertical scaling, on the other hand, involves adjusting the resource requirements and limits of containers within a Pod. Kubernetes allows you to specify resource requirements and limits for each container in a Pod, such as CPU and memory. Resource requirements indicate the minimum amount of resources needed for a container to run, while resource limits define the maximum amount of resources a container can use. This allows you to vertically scale containers by allocating more CPU and memory resources to containers that require higher performance or resource-intensive workloads, and vice versa. Vertical scaling is a useful mechanism to optimize resource utilization and performance of individual containers within a Pod.


Kubernetes also provides features like auto-scaling. Which allows you to define rules and policies to automatically scale applications based on metrics, such as CPU utilization or custom metrics. This allows applications to dynamically scale up or down based on real-time workload demands. Ensuring efficient resource utilization and optimal performance.

Different components scaling

Moreover, Kubernetes allows you to scale different components of your application independently. For example, you can scale the frontend and backend components of an application separately based on their respective workload demands. This provides flexibility and granular control over the scaling of different components of an application. Allowing you to optimize resource allocation and performance based on the specific requirements of each component.

Rolling updates

Rolling updates are a key feature of Kubernetes that enable smooth updates or rollbacks of applications without any downtime. Supports rolling updates, which ensure that applications can be updated or rolled back gradually. One by one, while maintaining the desired number of replicas.

During a rolling update, ensures that the update – performed in a controlled manner. Minimizing the impact on the availability and performance of the application. The update process involves creating new Pods with the updated version of the application. And then gradually terminating the old Pods one by one, ensuring that the desired number of replicas always maintained. This allows the application to continue running and serving traffic throughout the update process, without any noticeable downtime.

One of the key advantages of rolling updates is that they provide a smooth and controlled way to update applications. Allowing for continuous delivery of new features, bug fixes, and improvements, while ensuring that the application remains available and responsive to users. Rolling updates also provide the ability to roll back updates in case issues detected, allowing for quick and efficient recovery from potential failures.

Updates strategies

Kubernetes provides various strategies for rolling updates, including strategies like rolling updates, blue-green deployment, and canary deployment. These strategies allow you to customize the update process based on the specific requirements of your application, and perform updates with different levels of granularity and control. For example, with blue-green deployment, you can update a separate replica set with the new version of the application, and then switch traffic to the updated replica set once it’s verified to be stable, minimizing the risk of potential issues.

Configuration management

Configuration management is a critical aspect of managing applications in a Kubernetes cluster. K8s provides several mechanisms for managing configurations, allowing you to separate configuration details from application code and manage them independently. This helps in achieving separation of concerns and allows for efficient management of configurations across different environments.

Some of the key Kubernetes configuration management features include:

  1. ConfigMaps: ConfigMaps are Kubernetes resources that allow you to store and manage configuration data as key-value pairs. ConfigMaps can be used to store configuration details such as environment variables, command-line arguments, and configuration files. ConfigMaps can created and updated independently of the application containers, allowing you to manage configurations dynamically without modifying the container images or application code.
  2. Secrets: Secrets – Kubernetes resources that used to store sensitive information such as passwords, access tokens, and other confidential data. Secrets – encrypted and can used to securely store and manage sensitive information required by applications running in a K8s cluster. Secrets can be used as environment variables or as files mounted into containers, providing a secure way to manage sensitive configuration details.
  3. Template rendering: Kubernetes provides built-in mechanisms for rendering configuration templates using tools like Helm, Kustomize, or plain K8s manifests. These tools allow you to define templates with placeholders for configuration values and dynamically generate configuration files during deployment. This allows for efficient management of configurations across different environments and simplifies the process of managing complex configurations.
  4. Deployment management: provides mechanisms for managing different configurations of an application, such as multiple replicas, different container images, and different configuration values, using features like Deployments, StatefulSets, and DaemonSets. These mechanisms allow you to manage different versions or configurations of an application in a controlled and automated manner, facilitating efficient configuration management.
  5. Configuration drift detection: Kubernetes provides mechanisms for detecting configuration drift, which refers to changes in the running configuration of an application that deviate from the desired state. K8s has built-in functionality to compare the actual configuration of an application with the desired configuration specified in the configuration resources, allowing you to detect and rectify configuration drift.


Kubernetes is a powerful and widely adopted container orchestration platform that simplifies the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications in a distributed environment. It provides a rich set of features for automating application deployment, scaling, and configuration management. Allowing organizations to achieve efficient, resilient, and scalable containerized deployments.

With its modular architecture, K8s provides a flexible and extensible platform. That can be customized to meet the specific requirements of different applications and environments. It offers robust features for managing containerized applications, such as automatic scaling, rolling updates, services, ingress, and configuration management. Which enables organizations to efficiently manage containerized applications in production environments.

Kubernetes also provides a vibrant ecosystem of extensions, tools, and services. That enhance its capabilities and simplify the management of containerized applications. The active community and ecosystem around Kubernetes continue to drive innovation and improve the platform. Making it a popular choice for deploying and managing containerized applications at scale.

As organizations increasingly adopt containerization and microservices architecture for building modern applications. K8s has emerged as the de facto standard for container orchestration. Its comprehensive feature set, flexibility, and scalability. Make it a powerful platform for managing containerized applications in complex and dynamic environments. By leveraging Kubernetes, organizations can achieve efficient, scalable, and resilient deployments of containerized applications. Enabling them to deliver modern, cloud-native applications with confidence.

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